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16 Tenses Dalam Bahasa Inggris Beserta Dengan Pembahasan

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Penulis : Dinny Raudhatun Nurris – Toastmasters International Member

Hal yang terpenting dalam penyusunan kalimat bahasa Inggris adalah konsep waktu. Konsep periode waktu yang digunakan sebagai dasar penyusunan kalimat bahasa Inggris biasa kita sebut tenses.

16 tenses

Dalam bahasa Inggris, terdapat 16 jenis tenses yang harus kita pelajari agar kita dapat membuat sebuah kalimat bahasa Inggris yang tepat berdasarkan konsep waktunya. Nah, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami akan memberikan sedikit ringkasan ke-16 tenses pada penjabaran sebagai berikut.

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Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kebiasaan atau rutinitas
  • Fakta atau kebenaran umum
  • Jadwal
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Kalimat VerbaAffirmative (positif)Subject + V(+ -s / -es)He eats.
Negative (negatif)Subject + don’t / doesn’t + VHe doesn’t eat.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Do / Does + subject + V …?Does he eat?
Kalimat NominaAffirmative (positif)Subject + is / am / are + …They are students.
Negative (negatif)Subject + isn’t / am not / aren’t + …They aren’t students.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Is / Am / Are + subject + … ?Are they students?
SubjekVerb/ Verb(+s/es)Auxiliary to be
IVerbam
You/They/WeVerbare
He/She/ItVerb(+s/es)is

Present Continuous Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada saat penutur berbicara
  • Rencana kegiatan di waktu yang akan datang
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Affirmative (positif)Subject + is / am / are + V-ingI am studying.
Negative (negatif)Subject + isn’t / am not / aren’t + V-ingI am not studying.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Is / Am / Are + subject + V-ing …?Am I studying?

Namun, perlu diingat bahwa untuk kata kerja yang termasuk ke dalam kelompok stative verbs yang bersifat statis / tetap tidak akan bisa menggunakan present continuous tense meskipun sedang terjadi saat ini. Dikarenakan beberapa stative verbs tidak memilki bentuk V-ing, kalimat yang tepat untuk digunakan adalah simple present tense.

Present Perfect Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Menekankan pada akibat dari sebuah kegiatan
  • Kegiatan yang dimulai pada masa lampau dan masih berlanjut
  • Kegiatan yang dimulai pada masa lampau dan berhenti dalam waktu dekat dari masa sekarang
  • Kegiatan yang sudah selesai di waktu lampau dan masih memiliki hubungan dengan kondisi masa sekarang
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Kalimat VerbaAffirmative (positif)Subject + has / have + past participle (V3)They have finished all the work.
Negative (negatif)Subject + hasn’t / haven’t + past participle (V3)They haven’t finished all the work.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Has / Have + subject + past participle (V3) …?Have they finished all the work?
Kalimat NominaAffirmative (positif)Subject + has / have + been + …She has been very ill.
Negative (negatif)Subject + hasn’t / haven’t + been + …She hasn’t been very ill.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Has / Have + subject + been + … ?Has she been very ill?
SubjekHas / Have
IHave
You/They/We
He/She/ItHas

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Menekankan pada durasi atau lamanya suatu kegiatan yang berlangsung
  • Kegiatan yang dimulai pada masa lampau dan selesai dalam waktu dekat atau masih berlanjut
  • Akibat dari suatu kegiatan dapat dilihat, didengar, maupun dirasakan
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Affirmative (positif)Subject + has been / have been + V-ingI have been thinking.
Negative (negatif)Subject + hasn’t been / haven’t been + V-ingI haven’t been thinking.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Has / Have + subject + been + V-ing …?Have I been thinking?

Simple Past Tense

Simple Past Tense

Simple Past Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang dimulai dan selesai di masa lampau
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Kalimat VerbaAffirmative (positif)Subject + past verbs (V2)She slept.
Negative (negatif)Subject + didn’t + VShe didn’t sleep.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Did + subject + V …?Did she sleep?
Kalimat NominaAffirmative (positif)Subject + was / were + …They were amazing.
Negative (negatif)Subject + wasn’t / weren/t + …They weren’t amazing.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Was / Were + subject + … ?Were they amazing?

Past Continuous Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau
  • Kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung dengan kegiatan lainnya pada waktu yang sama di masa lampau
  • Kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung dan diinterupsi oleh kegiatan lain di masa lampau
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Affirmative (positif)Subject + was / were + V-ingHe was peeling the shallots.
Negative (negatif)Subject + wasn’t / weren’t + V-ingHe wasn’t peeling the shallots.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Was / Were + subject + V-ing …?Was he peeling the shallots?

Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang dilakukan sebelum kegiatan lainnya di masa lampau
  • Menekankan pada kegiatannya bukan durasi
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Kalimat VerbaAffirmative (positif)Subject + had + past participle (V3)She had washed the dishes.
Negative (negatif)Subject + hadn’t + past participle (V3)She hadn’t washed the dishes.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Had + subject + past participle (V3) …?Had she washed the dishes?
Kalimat NominaAffirmative (positif)Subject + had + been + …We had been so quiet all day.
Negative (negatif)Subject + hadn’t + been + …We hadn’t been so quiet all day.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Had + subject + been + … ?Had we been so quiet all day?

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang dilakukan sebelum kegiatan lainnya di masa lampau
  • Menekankan pada durasi atau lamanya suatu kegiatan berlangsung
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Affirmative (positif)Subject + had been + V-ingI had been looking for my phone.
Negative (negatif)Subject + hadn’t been + V-ingI hadn’t been looking for my phone.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Had + subject + been + V-ing …?Had I been looking for my phone?

Simple Future Tense

Simple Future Tense

Simple Future Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Keputusan spontan
  • Prediksi situasi di waktu yang akan datang
  • Rencana kegiatan di waktu yang akan datang
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Kalimat VerbaAffirmative (positif)Subject + will + VI will call him.
Negative (negatif)Subject + will not / won’t + VI won’t call him.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Will + subject + V …?Will I call him?
Kalimat NominaAffirmative (positif)Subject + will be + …He will be here soon.
Negative (negatif)Subject + will not be / won’t be + …He won’t be here soon
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Will + subject + be + … ?Will he be here soon?

Future Continuous Tense

Future Continuous Tense

Future Continuous Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang direncanakan akan sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang
  • Kegiatan yang dipastikan terjadi di waktu yang akan datang
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Affirmative (positif)Subject + will be + V-ingI will be sleeping at seven tonight.
Negative (negatif)Subject + will not be / won’t be + V-ingI will be sleeping at seven tonight
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Will + subject + be + V-ing …?Will I be sleeping at seven tonight?

Future Perfect Tense

Future Perfect Tense

Future Perfect Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang akan selesai sebelum kegiatan lain atau waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Kalimat VerbaAffirmative (positif)Subject + will have + past participle (V3)You will have finished the task.
Negative (negatif)Subject + will not have / won’t have + past participle (V3)You won’t have finished the task.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Will + subject + have + past participle (V3) …?Will you have finished the task?
Kalimat NominaAffirmative (positif)Subject + will have + been + …By the time you arrive, he will have been there for a while.
Negative (negatif)Subject + will not have / won’t have + been + …By the time you arrive, he won’t have been there for a while
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Will + subject + have been + … ?By the time you arrive, will he have been there for a while?

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang akan selesai sebelum kegiatan lain atau waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang
  • Menekankan pada durasi kegiatan yang berlangsung
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Affirmative (positif)Subject + will have been + V-ingShe will have been working for this company for three years at 5th next month.
Negative (negatif)Subject + will not have been / won’t have been + V-ingShe won’t have been working for this company for three years at 5th next month.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Will + subject + have been + V-ing …?Will she have been working for this company for three years at 5th next month?

Simple Past Future Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang mungkin akan dilakukan
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Kalimat VerbaAffirmative (positif)Subject + would + VI would take a rest.
Negative (negatif)Subject + would not + VI wouldn’t take a rest
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Would + subject + V …?Would I take a rest?
Kalimat NominaAffirmative (positif)Subject + would be + …They would be tired.
Negative (negatif)Subject + would not be + …They wouldn’t be tired
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Would + subject + be + … ?Would they be tired?

Past Future Continuous Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang mungkin akan dilakukan
  • Menekankan pada durasi atau lamanya kegiatan yang mungkin dilakukan
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Affirmative (positif)Subject + would be + V-ingShe would be preparing the food since morning.
Negative (negatif)Subject + would not be + V-ingShe wouldn’t be preparing the food since morning.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Would + subject + be + V-ing …?Would she be preparing the food since morning?

Past Future Perfect Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang mungkin sudah dilakukan di masa lampau
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Kalimat VerbaAffirmative (positif)Subject + would have + past participle (V3)She would have written to Ode.
Negative (negatif)Subject + would not have + past participle (V3)She wouldn’t have written to Ode.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Would + subject + have + past participle (V3) …?Would she have written to Ode?
Kalimat NominaAffirmative (positif)Subject + would have + been + …He would have been worried.
Negative (negatif)Subject + would not have + been + …He wouldn’t have been worried.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Would + subject + have been + … ?Would he have been worried?

Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Fungsi Kalimat

  • Kegiatan yang mungkin sudah dilakukan di masa lampau
  • Menekankan pada durasi atau lamanya kegiatan yang mungkin dilakukan
Jenis KalimatFormula KalimatContoh Kalimat
Affirmative (positif)Subject + would have been + V-ingThey would have been practicing very hard.
Negative (negatif)Subject + would not have been + V-ingThey wouldn’t have been practicing very hard.
Interrogative (pertanyaan)Would + subject + have been + V-ing …?Would they have been practicing very hard?

Daftar Pustaka

  • Azar, B.S. (1999). Understanding and Using English Grammar. New York: Pearson Education
  • Eastwood, J. (2012). Oxford Learner’s Pocket: Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • My English Page. Review of English Tenses. https://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-tenses.php (online)

Baca lengkap tenses :