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Present Perfect Tense

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Penulis : Dinny Raudhatun Nurris – Toastmasters International Member

Present perfect tense mengacu pada tindakan atau keadaan yang telah terjadi di masa lalu yang waktunya tidak dibatasi hingga masa sekarang (misalnya, kita telah berdiskusi sebelumnya – we have discussed before) atau mulai di masa lalu dan berlanjut ke waktu sekarang (misalnya, ia telah belajar selama satu jam terakhir – he has been study over the last hour).

Pengertian Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense adalah kombinasi tata bahasa dari aspek present tense dan perfect tense yang digunakan untuk mengekspresikan peristiwa masa lalu yang masih berlaku di masa sekarang. Istilah ini digunakan terutama dalam konteks tata bahasa Inggris untuk merujuk pada tenses seperti “Saya telah selesai – I have finished“.

Yang digunakan karena Present perfect tense menggunakan present tense dari verba bantu yang ada, dan disempurnakan menggunakan auxiliary itu yang dikombinasikan dengan past participle (bentuk participle yang didapat dengan menambahkan suffix (akhiran) berupa:

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-ed, -d, -t, -n atau –en , kepada regular verb dalam bentuk bare infinitive atau verb dasar).

Jadi singkatnya, present perfect tense merupakan tense yang menggabungkan antara present tense (masa sekarang) dan perfect tense (masa lalu), dimana, meskipun telah dilakukan di masa lalu sampai sekarang atau hanya dilakukan di masa lalu namun masih memiliki efek untuk masa sekarang.

rumus present perfect tense
rumus present perfect tense ( Sumber gambar : pinterest.co.uk )

Rumus Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense dibentuk menggunakan struktur dibawah ini:

  • Affirmative : ( Subject + Have / Has + Past Participle )
  • Negative : ( Subject + Haven’t / Hasn’t + Past Participle )
  • Question : ( Have / Has + Subject + Past Participle )

Affirmative Sentences

Subject

Have

Past
Participle

Rest of the Sentence

I

have

studied

for the exam.

You

have

bought

a new computer.

He

has

eaten

my chocolate.

She

has

written

an e-mail.

It

has

been

cold this month.

We

have

won

the championship.

You

have

tried

to learn a lot.

They

have

forgotten

my birthday.

Contractions (menyederhanakan kata/singkatan)

Banyak digunakan ketika kita sedang berbicara/berdialog:

Have

Contraction

Examples

I have

I’ve

I’ve spent all my money.

You have

You’ve

You’ve worn that dress before.

He has

He’s

He’s slept all morning.

She has

She’s

She’s lost her purse.

It has

It’s

It’s fallen off the wall.

We have

We’ve

We’ve chosen you for the job.

You have

You’ve

You’ve begun to annoy me.

They have

They’ve

They’ve drunk too much.

Negative Sentences

Subject

Have

Past
Participle

Rest of the Sentence

I

haven’t

studied

for the exam.

You

haven’t

bought

a new computer.

He

hasn’t

eaten

my chocolate.

She

hasn’t

written

an e-mail.

It

hasn’t

been

cold this month.

We

haven’t

won

the championship.

You

haven’t

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tried

to learn a lot.

They

haven’t

forgotten

my birthday.

Questions

Have

Subject

Past
Participle

Rest of the Sentence

Have

I

been

chosen for the team?

Have

you

bought

a new car?

Has

he

eaten

my sandwich?

Has

she

written

the letter?

Has

it

started

on time?

Have

we

won

a trophy?

Have

you

kept

my secret?

Have

they

driven

there?

Contoh kalimat present perfect tense

Bentuk khas dari tense ini adalah seperti yang ditunjukkan pada contoh dibawah:

  • I have finished. – saya belum selesai (mengerjakan sesuatu).
  • He has found them – Dia telah menemukan mereka.
  • They’ve finished. – mereka telah selesai (mengerjakan sesuatu).
  • They’ve found her. – mereka telah menemukannya.
  • Listen! I’ve heard some great news; Jim’s won! – Dengar! Saya mendengar kabar baik; Jim menang!.
  • They’ve bought a brand new car. – mereka telah membeli mobil dengan merk terbaru.
  • You’ve got a nerve! – kamu sangat berani!.
  • Have they finished? – No, they haven’t. apakah mereka sudah selesai? Tidak, mereka belum selesai (mengerjakan sesuatu).
  • Has Mary arrived yet? – No, she hasn’t. – apakah dia sudah menikah? Tidak, dia belum menikah.
  • I have not finished. – saya belum selesai (mengerjakan sesuatu).
  • He has not finished. – dia belum selesai (mengerjakan sesuatu).
  • Ranee hasn’t found her bracelet yet. – Ranee belum menemukan gelangnya yang hilang.
  • They haven’t seen her. – mereka belum melihat/menemukannya.

Kapan Present Perfect Tense bisa digunakan?

Untuk sesuatu yang dimulai di masa lalu dan berlanjut di masa sekarang:

  • They‘ve been married for nearly fifty years. – mereka telah menikah selama hampir 50 tahun.
  • She has lived in Liverpool all her life. – dia telah tinggal di Liverpool selama hidupnya.

Ketika kita berbicara tentang pengalaman yang terjadi hingga saat ini:

  • I‘ve seen that film before. – saya telah melihat film itu sebelumnya.
  • I‘ve played the guitar ever since I was a teenager. – saya telah bermain gitar sejak remaja.
  • He has written three books and he is working on another one. – dia telah menulis tiga buku dan dia sedang mengerjakan buku lainnya.

Kita sering menambahkan adverb untuk menceritakan pengalaman yang terjadi hingga saat ini :

  • My last birthday was the worst day I have ever had. – ulang tahun terakhirku adalah ulang tahun terburuk yang pernah kumiliki.

Dan kita tidak akan pernah menggunakan negative form:

  • A : “Have you ever met George?.” – pernahkan anda bertemu dengan George?.
  • B: “Yes, but I’ve never met his wife.” – iya saya pernah bertemu george, tapi saya belum pernah bertemu dengan istrinya.

Penggunaan present perfect tense yang telah terjadi di masa lalu tetapi sangat penting (masih mempengaruhi) masa sekarang:

  • I can’t get in the house. I’ve lost my keys. – saya tidak dapat masuk ke rumah. Saya menghilangkan kunci rumah saya.
  • Teresa isn’t at home. I think she has gone shopping. – Teresa sedang tidak berada dirumah. Saya fikir dia pergi berbelanja.

Dari contoh diatas, dapat diketahui bahwa form yang selalu digunakan yaitu:

Has = ‘s – memiliki/kepemilikan

Have = ‘ve – telah (melakukan sesuatu)

Has not = hasn’t – Tidak memiliki

Have not = haven’t – Belum (melakukan sesuatu)

Adverbials (Keterangan Waktu)

Kita sering menggunakan present perfect dengan adverbials yang merujuk pada masa lalu:

Recently – Baru saja

Just – Baru saja

Only just – Baru saja

Scientists have recently discovered a new breed of monkey. – Para ilmuan baru saja menemukan sebuah monyet jenis baru.

We have just got back from our holidays. – Kami baru saja pulang dari liburan.

atau adverbials yang termasuk dalam masa sekarang:

so far – sejauh ini / selama ini, until now – sampai sekarang, up to now —sampai sekarang.

ever (in questions)ever digunakan jika bertanya.

yet (in questions and negatives)yet digunakan untuk bertanya dan menyanggah.

M: Have you ever seen a ghost?. – Pernah kan anda melihat hantu?.

N: Where have you been up to now?. – Dimana saja anda selama ini?.

A: Have you finished your homework yet? – Sudahkan anda menyelesaikan PR?.

B: No, so far I’ve only done my history. – Belum, sejauh ini saya baru menyelesaikan cerita saya.

Setelah klausa dengan present perfect kita sering menggunakan klausa dengan since untuk menunjukkan kapan sesuatu dimulai di masa lalu:

I’ve worked here since I left school. – saya telah bekerja sejak saya meninggalkan bangku sekolah.

Contoh Soal Latihan

  1. Lengkapi kalimat-kalimat dengan present perfect berikut dengan mengganti kata kerja yang terdapat tanda kurung (). Ingatlah bahwa kata keterangan ‘ever’ dan ‘never’ diletakkan SETELAH ‘have/has’ dan SEBELUM past participle.
  • My Mother (watch) … that TV drama every day since it started.
  • I (never like) … watermelon. I think they’re horrible!.
  • Rara (want) … to be a doctor for as long as I can remember.
  • Rizka and I (know) … each other since we were at kindergarden together.
  • What’s the most interesting book you (ever read) … ?.

Jawaban (Key with answers):

  • My Mother (watch) has watched | ‘s watched that TV drama every day since it started.
  • I (never like) have never liked | ‘ve never liked watermelon. I think they’re horrible!.
  • Rara (want) have wanted | ‘ve wanted to be a doctor for as long as I can remember.
  • Rizka and I (know) have known | ‘ve known each other since we were at kindergarden together.
  • What’s the most interesting book you (ever read) have ever read | ‘ve ever read?.

2. Pilih kata yang tepat untuk menyelesaikan setiap kalimat.

  • Your dress looks cool. Have you (gone/been) to the dress stylist?
  • I’ve (gone/been) to the shop but there was no bread. Sorry!
  • A: Do you know where Adam is? B: Yes, I’ve (yet/so far/just) seen him. He’s in the kitchen.

Jawaban (Key with answers):

  • Your dress looks cool. Have you (gone/been) to the dress stylist?
  • I’ve (gone/been) to the shop but there was no bread. Sorry!
  • A: Do you know where Adam is? B: Yes, I’ve (yet/so far/just) seen him. He’s in the kitchen.

3. Tulislah kalimat yang kosong dibawah dengan menggunakan present perfect tense.

It’s Saturday morning. What have Tim and his school friends been doing since they got up?

  • Tiara – decorate his bedroom
  • Radit – work on his biology report
  • Dino and Zaki – practise basketball
  • Nanda and Lili – watch Dino and Zaki
  • Elisa – do nothing
  • Sindy and Dini – shop
  • Icha – help with housework
  • Inggrit and Fadli – chat on the Whatsapp
  • Ria and Zahra – do homework
  • Salsabila – read a book

Tiara…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Radit…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Dino and Zaki…………………………………………………………………………………………..

Nanda and Lili……………………………………………………………………………………………

Elisa…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Sindy and Dini…………………………………………………………………………………………….

Icha……………………………………………………………………………………………………

Inggrit and Fadli…………………………………………………………………………………………

Ria and Zahra…………………………………………………………………………………………..

Salsabila………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Jawaban (Key with answers):

Tiara has been decorating his bedroom.

Radit has been working on his biology report.

Dino and Zaki have been practising basketball.

Nanda and Lili have been watching Dino and Zaki.

Elisa has been doing nothing.

Syndi and Dini have been shopping.

Icha has been helping with housework.

Inggrit and Fadli have been chatting on the Whatsapp.

Ria and Zahra have been doing home work.

Salsabila has been reading a book.

Daftar Pustaka

  • collinseducation.com. The present perfect tense | Learning English Grammar | Collins Education. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from https://grammar.collinsdictionary.com/easy-learning/the-present-perfect-tense
  • en.wikipedia.org. Present perfect – Wikipedia. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Present_perfect
  • grammar.cl. Present Perfect Tense – English Grammar. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from https://www.grammar.cl/Present/Perfect_Tense.htm
  • learnenglish.britishcouncil.org. Present perfect | LearnEnglish – British Council. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/english-grammar-reference/present-perfect

Pertanyaan umum

Apa sih present perfect tense?

Present perfect tense merupakan kombinasi tata bahasa dari aspek present tense dan perfect tense yang digunakan untuk mengekspresikan peristiwa masa lalu yang masih berlaku di masa sekarang.

Bagaimana rumus present perfect tense?

Affirmative: Subject + Have / Has + Past Participle
Negative: Subject + Haven’t / Hasn’t + Past Participle
Question: Have / Has + Subject + Past Participle

Bagaimana contoh kalimat PPT?

I have finished.
He has found them.
They’ve finished.
They’ve found her.

Baca juga

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